Used alone, it can make the formula sticky and it is a good team player so it is usually combined with other thickeners and so-called rheology modifiers (helper ingredients that adjust the flow and thus the feel of the formula). BG’s main job is usually to be a solvent for the other ingredients. Other than helping oil and water to blend, the main thing of Olivem 1000 is generating liquid crystal structures that are similar to the lipid structures of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin). No wonder it's popular in toners and oily skin formulas. It’s a so-called fatty alcohol, a mix of cetyl and stearyl alcohol, other two emollient fatty alcohols. Terpinen-4-ol is considered to be the main active component but as a great article in Clinical Microbiology Reviews states "while some TTO components may be considered less active, none can be considered inactive" and most components contribute to TTO's strong antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal effects. Centella Asiatica - or gotu kola as normal people call it  - has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years. Made with from around the world. Just for hard-core geeks, the main biologically active compounds are pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins called asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acid (also called centellosides). In large amount can be very drying. We don't have description for this ingredient yet. It also acts as a thickening and gelling agent that creates nice, non-sticky and supple textures. It can be found naturally in the roots & leaves of the comfrey plant, but more often than not what's in the cosmetic products is produced synthetically. It also forms a protective barrier on the skin and fills in fine lines. An in-vivo (done on real people) test done by the manufacturer shows that Zinc PCA reduces sebum production statistically significantly after 28 days of application (1% was used in the test), and in-vitro (made in the lab) measurements show that Zinc PCA has strong anti-microbial activity against P. acnes (between 0.1-0.25%) and other bacterial strains. It's free of allergens, gluten, sulfates, parabens and synthetic fragrances. Research also shows that it might be useful for wound healing as it promotes fibroblast (nice type of cells in our skin that produce skin-firming collagen) proliferation. If you have spotted ethylhexylglycerin on the ingredient list, most probably you will see there also the current IT-preservative, phenoxyethanol. Nice to spot on any ingredient list. The famous tea tree oil. Butylene glycol, or let’s just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. Simple alcohol that's a great solvent, penetration enhancer, creates cosmetically elegant, light formulas, great astringent, and antimicrobial. Add to cart. Of course, it cannot make a miracle but it might have some effect via regulating microcirculation and normalizing the metabolism in the cells of connective tissues. In spite of this, if you search for "hyaluronic acid vs sodium hyaluronate" you will find on multiple places that sodium hyaluronate is smaller and can penetrate the skin better. They are good friends because ethylhexylglycerin can boost the effectiveness of phenoxyethanol (and other preservatives) and as an added bonus it feels nice on the skin too. what's the deal with alcohol in skincare products at alcohol denat. The famous tea tree oil. Thanks to the positive charge, it also creates a complex with AHAs (AHAs like to lose a hydrogen ion and be negatively charged, so the positive and the negative ions attract each other) that causes a "time-release AHA effect" and reduces the irritation associated with AHAs. BG is approved by Ecocert and is also used enthusiastically in natural products. We do a Best of INCIDecoder email once a month with the most interesting products and ingredients we bump into. Have suggestions, comments? Panthenol might make your hair softer, more elastic and helps to comb your hair more easily. We have more info on Olivem 1000 at Cetearyl Olivate >>. It's quite the multi-tasker: an emollient and water-binding ingredient but also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. As you might guess from the “pro” part, it’s a precursor to vitamin B5 (whose fancy name is pantothenic acid). Part of Olivem 1000, a natural emulsifier duo that is known for forming biomimetic liquid crystal structures. a 4% betaine salicylate product is similar to a 2% salicylic acid one. COSRX Natural Bha Skin Returning Emulsion. Chemically, this is definitely not true, as the two forms are almost the same, both are polymers and the subunits can be repeated in both forms as much as you like. fragrance, preservatives or chemical sunscreens) in the product. Other tasks include helping the product to absorb faster and deeper into the skin (penetration enhancer), making the product spread nicely over the skin (slip agent), and attracting water (humectant) into the skin. HA is famous for its crazy water holding capacity as it can bind up to 1000 times its own weight in water. (We also checked Prospector for sodium hyaluronate versions actually used in cosmetic products and found that the most common molecular weight was 1.5-1.8 million Da that absolutely counts as high molecular weight). But we have found comedogenic components, harmful alcohols, fungal acne feeding components, silicones and polyethylene glycol (PEG). It also helps to stabilize oil-water mixes (emulsions), though it does not function as an emulsifier in itself. Arginine usually has a positive charge (cationic) that makes it substantive to skin and hair (those are more negatively charged surfaces) and an excellent film former. Legend has it that the medicinal benefits of the oil were considered so important that Australian soldiers were supplied with some tea tree oil in their World War II military kit. One of the biological activities of the centellosides is to be able to stimulate GAGs  (glycosaminoglycans - polysaccharides that are part of the liquidy stuff between our skin cells), and especially hyaluronic acid synthesis in our skin. Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/​Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer, Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil, Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil, Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer. Simply alcohol refers to ethanol and it's a pretty controversial ingredient. An ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. See the list below for details. As for skincare, it makes the skin silky smooth, creates a subtle gloss and forms a protective barrier (aka occlusive). As cosmetic chemist kindofstephen writes on reddit  "sodium hyaluronate disassociates into hyaluronic acid molecule and a sodium atom in solution". Madecassoside can also help in burn wound healing through increasing antioxidant activity and enhancing collagen synthesis. It’s an ingredient whose safety hasn’t been questioned so far by anyone (at least not that we know about). A helper ingredient that's good at stabilizing water-based formulas and also serves as a thickener. The Zinc part is there to help normalize sebum production and limit the proliferation of evil acne-causing bacteria. A super commonly used thickener and emulsion stabilizer. An often used glycol that works as a solvent, humectant, penetration enhancer and also gives a good slip to the products. CosRX Natural BHA Skin Returning Emulsion contains 22 ingredients. It's free of allergens, gluten, sulfates, parabens, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and synthetic fragrances. Some experts even think that regular exposure to alcohol damages skin barrier and causes inflammation though it's a debated opinion. A multi-functional helper ingredient that acts as a humectant and emollient. In cosmetics it's quite the multi-tasker: it's an emollient and water-binding ingredient but it's also an emulsifier and can be used for stabilization purposes. If you have oily, acne-prone skin, Zinc PCA is one of the actives to put on your "TO TRY" list. It's not only soothing but it' also skin-softening and protecting and can promote wound healing. A colorless, slightly viscous liquid that, similar to other glycols, is used as a solvent in cosmetic products. L-PCA stands for pyrrolidone carboxylic acid and it's a key molecule in the skin that helps with processes of hydration and energy (it's actually an NMF, a natural moisturizing factor). Depending on your hair type, it can be a bit difficult to wash out and might cause some build-up (btw, this is not true to all silicones, only the non-volatile types). A castor oil derived, white, lard-like helper ingredient that is used as a solubilizer to put fragrances (those are oil loving things) into water-based products such as toners. It’s traditionally used to improve small wounds, burns and scratches and it’s also a well known anti-inflammatory agent for eczema. Spotted a bug? Its main component (83-97%) is limonene, the super common fragrant ingredient. A really multi-functional helper ingredient that can do several things in a skincare product: it can bring a soft and pleasant feel to the formula, it can act as a humectant and emollient, it can be a solvent for some other ingredients (for example it can help to stabilize perfumes in watery products) and it can also help to disperse pigments more evenly in makeup products.