The lifetime values of the excited state decrease with the increase in PbO content in the glass (Figure 8.5). The CLP Regulation makes sure that the hazards presented by chemicals are clearly communicated to workers and consumers in the European Union. More information about the EC Inventory can be found here. It is produced by two methods: Barton pot method. A similar shoulder was also observed for many glasses containing heavy-metal oxide, as reported by Liu et al. If the substance was not covered by the EC Inventory, ECHA attributes a list number in the same format, starting with the numbers 6, 7, 8 or 9. Other articles where Lead(II) oxide is discussed: glass: Optical and high-temperature glass: …of superior tableware; by using lead monoxide (PbO) as a flux, it is possible to obtain a glass with a high refractive index and, consequently, the desired sparkle and brilliance. For all (PbO)x[(Na2O)0.25(SiO2)0.75]1−x glasses with 0.10≤x≤0.25, a broad optical absorption edge has been observed. Substances listed in the EINECS, ELINCS, or NLP inventories. 4.11), cleavage between the Al planes (labelled C in Fig. In the case of binary glasses, there is also a possibility for the existence of L-centres; however, the luminescences from these samples are mainly decided by the electronic transition of the Pb2+ ions. The date of the last update corresponds to the publication date of the InfoCard and not necessarily to the date in which the update occurred in the source data. [7–9]. This list contains environmental quality standards (EQS), including annual averages and maximum allowable concentrations, for priority substances and certain other pollutants as provided for in Article 16 of Directive 2000/60/EC. 1989), of thin slabs (1-4 layers) of the (0001) surface, in which the positions of the surface atoms perpendicular to the surface were optimized, have demonstrated that the surface Al atoms relax to positions on the order of 0.4-0.5 Å away from their truncated bulk positions. The air flow carries out the oxidized particles and cyclone separators collect lead oxide grains of the desired size. The chain layers are stabilised by van der Waals bonds . Tet-PbO is stable at low temperatures and low pressures. If no EU harmonised classification and labelling exists and the substance was not registered under REACH, information derived from classification and labelling (C&L) notifications to ECHA under CLP Regulation is displayed under this section. During rotation of the drum, the lead balls rub and strike against each other and get oxidized under the action of the heat generated by the friction and of the air flow drawn through the drum. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically generated for the InfoCard. Therefore, the orthorhombic-PbO crystals are prone to flaking. The (0001) surface is more interesting since both the surface Al and O atoms are three-fold coordinated. However, substance notifications in the InfoCard are aggregated independently of the impurities and additives. Substances indicated, in 2009, as being intended to be registered by at least one company in the EEA. Emission spectra (left) and excitation spectra (right) for (PbO)x[(Na2O)0.25(SiO2)0.75]1−x glasses with (a) x=0.1, λexcitation=295 nm and λemission=400 nm, (b) x=0.15, λexcitation=304 nm and λemission=416 nm, (c) x=0.2, λexcitation=322 nm and λemission=442 and (d) x=0.25, λexcitation=330 nm and λemission=450 nm. Spontaneous ignition occurring during the early stages of mixing and grinding the components was traced to individual grades of lead oxide and the presence of undispersed lumps in the mixture.