This again is to prevent the sill-plate from rotting as well as providing a termite barrier. It stops the walls from collapsing in gusty winds. Harri Hautajärvi, "Houses in Finland", Helsinki: Rakennustieto, 2011. These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels (sometimes called headers), serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall. I’m in the process of renovating an early 1900s home that was constructed using the old balloon-frame method. The preferable spacer material is rigid insulation. Roofs are most often covered with shingles made of asphalt, fiberglass and small gravel coating, but a wide range of materials are used. [17], The name comes from a French Missouri type of construction, maison en boulin,[17] boulin being a French term for a horizontal scaffolding support. The main difference between platform and balloon framing is at the floor lines. It is a simpler construction process compared to balloon construction. Wider 1.5 in × 5.5 in (38 mm × 140 mm) studs may be used to provide space for more insulation. Balloon framing is a style of wood-house building that uses long, vertical 2" x 4"s for the exterior walls. Expert insights on techniques and principles. Dormers are small areas in which vertical walls interrupt a roof line, and which are topped off by slopes at usually right angles to a main roof section. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. Molten tar is often used to waterproof flatter roofs, but newer materials include rubber and synthetic materials. Wall panels built of studs are interrupted by sections that provide rough openings for doors and windows. The advent of cheap machine-made nails, along with water-powered sawmills in the early 19th century made balloon framing highly attractive, because it did not require highly skilled carpenters, as did the dovetail joints, mortises and tenons required by post-and-beam construction. Sloping crickets are built into roofs to direct water away from areas of poor drainage, such as behind a chimney at the bottom of a sloping section. Wood will shrink much more across its grain than along the grain. It would surely blow over in the next wind! eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Framing lumber should be grade-stamped, and have a moisture content not exceeding 19 percent. Platform is a light-frame construction system and the most common method of constructing the frame for houses and small apartment buildings as well as some small commercial buildings in Canada and the United States. I-joists (closed-web trusses) are often made from laminated woods, most often chipped poplar wood, in panels as thin as 1 cm (0.39 in), glued between horizontally laminated members of less than 4 cm by 4 cm (two-by-twos), to span distances of as much as 9 m (30 ft). Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020. a wooden building frame composed of machine-sawed scantlings fastened with nails, having studs rising the full height of the frame with the joists nailed to the studs and supported by sills or by ribbons let into the studs. The floor, or the platform of the name, is made up of joists (usually 2x6, 2×8, 2×10 or 2×12, depending on the span) that sit on supporting walls, beams or girders. (Construction codes in most jurisdictions require a stiff plywood sheathing.) Townsend, Gilbert. The balloon wall studs extend from the sill of the first story all the way to the top plate or end rafter of the second story. This is usually done only for partitions enclosing clothes closets or cupboards to save space. The balloon-frame buildings were coming apart section by section. It is said that when buildings were first being built using this method, its critics thought it looked as frail and unstable as a balloon. (400 or 600 mm) on center depending on the type and thickness of the wall finish used. The complete wall sections are then raised and put in place, temporary braces added and the bottom plates nailed through the subfloor to the floor framing members. Dormers are small areas in which vertical walls interrupt a roof line, and which are topped off by slopes at usually right angles to a main roof section. Become a member and get unlimited site access, including the Interior wall coverings in light-frame construction typically include wallboard, lath and plaster or decorative wood paneling. Corners and intersections, however, must be framed with at least two studs. Later, after the mechanicals have been roughed in, this strip will be taped to the Intello Plus on the first and second levels. Openings are typically spanned by a header or lintel that bears the weight of the structure above the opening. Lintels (aka headers) are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. The top and bottom plates are end-nailed to each stud with two nails at least 3.25 in (83 mm) in length (, This page was last edited on 18 September 2020, at 19:30. 300. A balloon frame is a frame that is used in construction to build buildings. (nominal) (38 mm) lumber the same width as the studs. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Clerestories are formed by an interruption along the slope of a roof where a short vertical wall connects it to another roof section. [1] In this latter case, the wall should be reinforced with a diagonal wood or metal bracing inset into the studs. Historically, people fitted naturally shaped wooden poles together as framework and then began using joints to connect the timbers, a method today called traditional timber framing' or log framing. Since there is no vertical load to be supported by partitions, single studs may be used at door openings. In the past, 1x planks set at 45-degrees to the joists were used for the subfloor. Any lower platform supports the weight of the platforms and walls above the level of its component headers and joists. In two-story construction, openings are left in the floor system for a stairwell, in which stair risers and treads are most often attached to squared faces cut into sloping stair stringers. There was a great demand for small buildings of all types as the North American continent was settled, and the light timber frame provided a…, …framed separately, as contrasted with balloon framing, in which the studs (vertical members) extend the full height of the building. [1] Lintels are usually constructed of two pieces of 2 in. Builders were reluctant to adopt the new technology, however, by the 1880s, some form of 2x4 framing was standard. Thus, they were able to spread across the United States quickly, allowing the west to grow.